What is the internal recruitment?
Internal recruitment is the decision to relocate employees (existing) to vacancies in the organization. These staff actions include promotion, transfer, or relocation, but at the same hierarchical level up and downgrading of employees to a higher or lower hierarchical level.
Examples of internal recruitment
In the development of large corporations can be found examples of the needs of internal staff movement and the effect it has had on the state of the organization. For example, 12,000 IBM workers changed jobs in 1986. Many of them changed their career development by moving from surplus departments (such as manufacturing) to those in which there was a shortage at the time (marketing, sales). Xerox Corporation Reprographics Business Group redirects its highly qualified staff (chemists, engineers, etc.) to computer engineering, a field of activity that is completely different from their previous one, as dictated by the high shortage of specialists in this field.
Personnel management processes are not limited to decisions about who will join the organization, but also how the transfer of employees in the various hierarchical levels. They are becoming increasingly important for personnel management in the organization, given the ability to respond adequately and effectively to the rapidly changing and competitive environment. It should be noted that the movement of staff within the organization affects career development, a fact, which is of great importance for the status of employees, for meeting their needs - tangible and intangible, which in turn affects their work motivation and performance of duties, respectively the good condition of the organization.
How to select candidates for transfer from one position to another
Here the question is, how to select candidates for transfer from one position to another? What are the factors that influence the desire of employees to move to another position, to accept certain opportunities for change? What determines the needs of the internal movement of staff?
The diagnostic approach to internal personnel management gives us answers to these questions.
Although this is a process that focuses on the organization's job search opportunities, there are external conditions that determine it. External conditions are the labor market, the legislation in the country and the decisions of the trade unions. The state of the organization and the employees are internal.
Although similar to external recruitment, internal recruitment is characterized by working with workers from the organization itself. The process of internal selection consists not only in selecting the appropriate candidates for the vacant position but also concerning the rejected candidates who remain in the organization, as this affects their future job performance and motivation. In the external selection, the rejected candidates have little or almost no direct effect on the results of the organization. Thus, in the internal selection of staff, the organizations simultaneously take into account the organizational and personal interests in decision-making. These two factors constitute an important aspect of internal selection - career development.
Stages of the employee's career
A factor that is of great importance in career planning is at what stage of the career cycle the individual is. The career cycle is the totality of all the stages that an individual's career goes through.
As individuals gain work experience, their professional development can be viewed in the context of the biological life cycle of growth and decline. For example, a person at an early stage of his career development is less interested in his pension insurance than in his opportunities to rise in the hierarchy. The four stages of a career are orientation, job establishment, support, and retirement.
I will mention bellow all stages of the career development of most people.
The orientation stage covers the period from approximately 15 to 24 years of age, in which the individual explores career opportunities by comparing them with their interests and abilities. During this stage, the young person makes an effort to adapt to the working world.
Orienteering activities include attempts to clarify and identify interests and skills; enriching them through various training programs; overcoming the parental pressure regarding finances and directing the interests to a certain field of work. The orientation process is influenced by the school family and friends' environment. It is possible to try and reject different professions, to fail, but in this way, the young person gains experience and shapes his interests.
The most important thing during this period is for the individual to realize his specific abilities and talents. Gradually he turned to permanent work. This is the transition to the second career stage - establishment;
Establishing the workplace
The stage of establishment passes between the 24th and 44th year of the individual's life, and this is the most fruitful period for professional performances. It is believed that during this period the individual has found the right job for himself and his actions are aimed at keeping his job. In many cases, a person "anchors" to a certain job at the beginning of the period.
The establishment stage is divided into three sub-stages:
Substage of experience: corresponds to the age between 25 and 30 years. During this period, the individual assesses whether the professional field to which he or she is oriented is appropriate for him or her, and if he or she is not trying to focus on another;
Substage of stabilization: this is the period that roughly covers the age between 30 - 40 years. During this period, clear and specific goals are set for the future development of the already chosen profession, detailed career development plans are made, aiming at the fulfillment of the set goals;
Substage of occupational crises;
Between 35-45 years, the individual takes stock of what has been achieved so far given the goals and ambitions set at the beginning of his professional development. They may find that some of their dreams of professional career (such as becoming a company president) will not come true. It is necessary within this period to realize the degree of importance of their work and the place of their career in their lives. Often during this period, one wonders what one wants to be, what one can achieve, and what one must sacrifice to achieve what one wants to be.
The establishment process includes successful negotiations in the course of job search, recruitment, and guidance in the selected organization. During this early socialization in the organization and identified his future with her. A process of mutual acceptance follows. The individual, colleagues, and managers must get to know each other's abilities. There is a need for an open exchange of information and feedback between evaluation and performance. Such feedback stimulates the demonstration of capabilities on both sides;
In the course of this stage (45-65) the individual is already an important member of the organization, has found his rightful place for professional performance and his efforts are focused on its preservation. The evaluation of job performance is more important for his motivation. The organization relies heavily on the employee's experience. It becomes a model of behavior for the younger ones and can train them. During this stage, crises in professional development may occur, stimulated by factors outside the work environment, such as family changes, children leaving home, divorce, death of parents, changed financial obligations, awareness of boundaries, including death, which may lead to a change in goals. These crises vary from person to person.
Some authors characterize the last years of his career as a time of retirement. Preparing for retirement can lead to a psychological withdrawal from the organization long before the physical departure. Characteristic of this stage is a reduced role and fewer responsibilities, the growth of collegial relations into friendly and vice versa.
Some sociologists and psychologists include more stages or merge life with career stages. Some describe the transition between the various stages as critical (Manuel London). Others accept the existence of a "career clock" that affects the rate of transition from one stage to another (J. Rush, A. Peacock, and G. Milkovich). Other concepts are "career turmoil", which is transmitted by problems in life; self-unrest - dissatisfaction with one's performance, career content unrest - dissatisfaction with the volume and content of work in the chosen career; job unrest - dissatisfaction with the work environment. Robert Oliver argues that career unrest reduces an individual's ability to put creativity into their work, which affects their productivity.
Types of professional orientations
- Realistic orientation: people with this type of orientation are attracted to professions that involve physical activities that require skills, strength, and coordination, such as agricultural activities.
- Research orientation: this type of orientation presupposes an interest in careers that involve cognitive activities (thinking, organizing, understanding) rather than emotional ones. For example, biologists, chemists, and other precise sciences.
- Social orientation: people who have an interest in professions that are characterized by interpersonal relationships and contacts, rather than physical and intellectual work. For example, psychologists, service professions;
- Standard (conventional) orientation: this is an orientation that presupposes an interest in activities structured and subject to different norms. For example, accountants, bankers, etc .;
- Entrepreneurship orientation: these are managers, entrepreneurs, and other management activities;
- Artistic orientation: these are people who are attracted to careers in which they can express qualities such as artistry, emotionality, creativity (artists, musicians, advertising agents.
Often people have more than one of the listed types of orientation, for example, they can have social, research, and realistic orientation at the same time.
According to Holland, the closer and more compatible the individual's orientations, the easier it will be to choose a career. to explain and illustrate his claim, Holland places on each corner of a hexagon one type of orientation. The model has six angles, each of which corresponds to a type of personal orientation.
According to Holland's study, the closest two orientations in the figure are the most compatible. If the first two priority orientations of the individual lie on one side of the hexagon, then the choice of career should be the easiest. In case the orientations lie on two opposite angles (realistic and social orientation) the process of career choice is accompanied by certain indecision.
Determining specific abilities and skills
Once the individual career orientation has been determined, the career stage in which the individual finds himself, it is time to determine the specific abilities.
Successful and good work performance depends not only on the motivation of the individual but also on his abilities. The individual can have a conventional professional orientation, but his abilities and talents will determine the specific profession to which he will focus. Whether he will be an accountant, banker, or manager depends on his abilities and talent. There are many tools and methods for assessing individual abilities.
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