What is Project appraisal (or evaluation)?
Project appraisal (or evaluation) is an independent activity, but similar to monitoring is related to project monitoring in some aspects. The project evaluation is an analysis of the information collected and systematized during the monitoring. It focuses on how the results contribute to the immediate objective and to what extent it will lead to the achievement of the common goals.
The aspects of the project evaluation (appraisal)
The project evaluation or appraisal is a purposeful and systematic assessment that can cover various aspects:
- Relevance - whether the strategy adopted is consistent with the goals set;
- Impact - aims to clarify the differences and changes caused by the project and to check whether the project is relevant to the specific circumstances;
- Efficiency and efficiency - whether the finances are used appropriately.
The main purpose of the project evaluation (appraisal)
The main purpose of the project evaluation (appraisal) is to provide information on the results, and its purpose is to improve the quality and effectiveness of project management. The evaluation is carried out at certain stages - during the preparation of the project, at some point after its implementation and after its completion.
The ex-ante evaluation analyzes the adequacy of the implementing and monitoring provisions and assists in establishing procedures and defining project selection criteria. It checks the coherence between the project and the proposed activities, the quality of the strategy and objectives, the allocation of resources, results, and impacts. The results of the ex-ante evaluation are essential for the functioning of the monitoring system.
The mid-term evaluation aims to evaluate the initial results and make recommendations for the changes needed to achieve the objectives. Outcome and impact indicators, together with monitoring indicators, are a source of information on which the evaluation of projects during their implementation is based. The evaluation addresses a set of specific project implementation issues - relevance, efficiency, effectiveness, impact, and sustainability, in the context of the defined objectives. It is important to note here that the evaluation of projects carried out by an independent evaluator is based on the monitoring information, and its results are used by the monitoring bodies to outline problems and opportunities for corrective action.
The data for the interim evaluation
The data for the interim evaluation (including, where necessary, revision of the indicators) is contained in the interim evaluation reports. Performance is measured based on a limited number of monitoring indicators reflecting the effectiveness, quality of management, and financial implementation of the projects. The mid-term evaluation data shall be provided to the monitoring body for the evaluation of the initial results of the project support, their relevance, and the degree of achievement of the objectives. All information provided to the monitoring body shall specify the frequency and timetable for its collection and provision, as well as the authorities and institutions responsible for providing the data at all levels of government (project, program).
The performance evaluation considers the extent to which the resources, efficiency and effectiveness, socio-economic impact, and relevance of the project have been used in the context of the objectives set. It identifies the factors that contribute to the success or failure of the project, achievements, and results, including from a sustainability perspective, and identifies good practices.
Ex-post evaluation is usually carried out in the form of an independent review of the history, objectives, results, activities, and resources to draw lessons from the lessons learned that may be useful in future project activity. A detailed analysis of the original plan, changes made over time, actual development and relative success should be made. The main objective is to identify procedures and techniques that have not been effective. Missing or insufficient management tools, new project management techniques must also be identified, and unnecessary processes and tools eliminated if necessary.
Project evaluation efficiency
For evaluation efficiency, the techniques used must have the following characteristics: reach and involve all key actors; carry out a quality analysis, enabling end-users to express their views; use different techniques to collect quantitative information. Information can be collected through surveys, questionnaires, surveys, and discussions.
The evaluation process can be complicated due to differences in understanding and objectivity, reluctance to provide/disclose information, difficulty in measuring quality indicators.
Completion of the project is carried out with the preparation of a final report describing the results achieved by the project, the type, and extent of its impact on the improvement of the situation of the sector or region concerned.
The Project evaluation (appraisal) report
The report shall contain the following information:
- Progress made on implementation in line with project objectives;
- Financial performance;
- Actions taken to ensure the quality and efficiency of implementation;
- Information on significant implementation problems and measures taken to address them.
Information on the actual costs and duration of activities, costs, and use of resources, as well as all contracts, reports, and project reports, should be stored in an organized database to support planning for future projects.
Monitoring is an activity consisting of the systematic and continuous collection, reporting and transfer of information on the reached stage of project implementation and spending, identifying problems, making recommendations, and taking corrective measures.
Project monitoring indicators are physical and financial and show specific goals, physical implementation, and implementation of the financial plan.
The system of monitoring indicators consists of baseline indicators, program indicators, performance indicators.
Baseline data form the basis for developing the project plan, setting goals, and assessing project impacts.
The program indicators are input indicators, end-product indicators, performance indicators, indicators for general and specific impacts.
Performance indicators measure interim performance over the original quantitative targets and address three issues: efficiency, quality of management, and financial performance.
The monitoring system contains four interconnected elements: collected data, management information systems, procedures for collecting, processing, and transferring data via the database, institutions operating the system.
The primary purpose of project control is to ensure compliance with the principles of sound financial management - economy, efficiency, and effectiveness.
The project's financial management and control system include:
- control criteria;
- frequency of inspections;
- units and specialists exercising control;
- forms for providing control results;
- types of control (control of the physical implementation of the project and financial control).
The evaluation of the project is a purposeful and systematic assessment, which has various aspects: relevance, impact, efficiency and effectiveness. In the chronological perspective, the project evaluation is: preliminary, intermediate, and subsequent.
Performance appraisal identifies the factors that contribute to the success or failure of the project, achievements, and results, identifies good practices, including procedures, techniques, management tools.
Project Impacts - Sustainable benefits to the final beneficiaries of the project and broader benefits to other user groups beyond the immediate project postures.
Project execution - implementation of project activities using a set of resources to achieve the project objectives.
Indicator - a quantitative and qualitative verifiable measure of the status and changes that have occurred due to the project.
Project control (process control) - a process of timely and regular establishment and measurement of actual results of project activities, comparing them with planned indicators and taking necessary corrective measures if necessary.
Project monitoring is an activity consisting of the systematic and continuous collection, reporting and transfer of information on the achieved stage of project implementation and spending of funds, identifying problems, making recommendations, and taking corrective measures.
Project assessment - a purposeful and systematic evaluation of the relevance, impact, efficiency and effectiveness of the project. Chronologically, the project evaluation is preliminary, intermediate, and ex-post.
Projeсt control system - a system comprising the following elements:
- indicators/control criteria;
- frequency of inspections;
- units and specialists, performing the control;
- forms for providing control results;
- types of control.
Projeсt monitoring system - a system comprising four interconnected elements:
- collected data;
- management information systems;
- procedures for collecting, processing and transferring data via the database;
Public-sector infrastructure project management. Definition of a project
Projects in the context of infrastructure are an operational tool for the development of different regions, spheres, and sectors.
Nature of public programs and projects
The similarity between public projects and programs is that they have the object of change.
Project life cycle
A project life cycle is the sequence of phases that a project goes through from its initiation to its closure.
Contents of the proposal for project funding
Many infrastructure projects are funded by state or financial institutions. We will describe the most common sections needed to describe the details needed to apply for project funding.
Established project management models offer a system of knowledge about the logical process of project development. It starts with an analysis of the environment in which the project will take place.
Stakeholders are various individuals, both within and outside the organization, who are interested in the project or may be concerned at some point.
Problem analysis and goal analysis for infrastructure projects
The identification of the project implies the existence of obstacles to development in the relevant field, which can be successfully overcome through the development and implementation of the project.
Project Logic Model (Logical framework approach)
The project development process is carried out following the logic modeling approach.
Resources and Activities Planning
Resource planning is a process that may help with finding the resources for the project. To identifying resources, planning activities should identify exactly when each resource is required.
Factors affecting the quality of the project
Quality has become a central topic of attention, discussion, research and organizational activities in the field of manufacturing and services in the second half of the 20th century.