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The Elements of Scrum

The following article is a sample from the full BVOP™ Ultimate Guide and is part of the preparation for the BVOP™'s modern Agile Project Management Certification Program.

Scrum includes the following elements:

  • Roles
  • Events
  • Artifacts
  • Rules

Scrum roles

The roles are the people who participate in Scrum. They are called roles because everyone has a specific "role", does certain things, and "is responsible" for certain matters.

Scrum has three roles:

  • Development team
  • Product Owner
  • Scrum Master

There are no other roles in Scrum, no varieties or positions. Everyone probably has a position, but it remains his official position in the company, and that has nothing to do with Scrum.

The development team

The development team combines the developers. It only includes people who work to complete the tasks. It's rare, but developers can play the role of Product Owner or Scrum Master. This approach is not recommended.

The development team may include people of different competencies, skills, and positions. These can be programmers, designers, architects, engineers, quality control, business analysts, and anyone else who actually works on the product.

The Product Owner

The Product Owner is the role that represents the voice of the stakeholders and is responsible for ensuring that the team delivers value to the business.


Stakeholders can be clients, directors, consultants, employees. These are people who have some interest in the product.

The client or senior management has an interest in the product. Still, other people in the organization may also be interested if they are actually going to use the product in their work.

The Product Owner role prioritizes all items in the Product Backlog list by their "business value" for the product. This role uses his or her competent product knowledge, field knowledge, stakeholder consultation, individual judgment for each task or idea. The Product Owner role is also one that can informally confirm that the product the teams are developing will appeal to everyone, and most likely, the increment will be approved.

The Scrum Master

The most important role of the Scrum Master role is to make sure that the Development team works by following the values ​​and practices of Scrum. It also seeks to create comfort, remove barriers, teach them, and educate them on productivity, organization, responsibility, and discipline.

Scrum Team

The Scrum Team is a generic term that includes all the Scrum Roles: Development Team, Product Owner, and Scrum Master.

When we talk about the Scrum Team, we always have in mind all the Scrum roles combined.

Scrum artifacts

Scrum artifacts are called several physical elements, artifacts that have daily use in Scrum, and generally in product work. The Scrum team and other non-team stakeholders often pay attention to these artifacts to know how product development, activities, and everything else is progressing.

The official Scrum artifacts are:

  • Product Backlog
  • Sprint Backlog
  • Product Increment

BVOP adds a few more essential artifacts to this list that underpin every product development:

  • Sprint Goal
  • Definition of Done
  • Product Vision
  • Burn-Down Chart

The Product Backlog

Product Backlog is a trendy term in product management, Agile environments, and Scrum framework.

Product Backlog is a whole bunch of ideas, items, and development proposals that are accumulated and compiled into a list.

The Sprint Backlog

Sprint Backlog is a work and task list that is a sample of the entire Product Backlog list.

Sprint Backlog is the "list" of "tasks" that the Development Team must complete during a specific sprint (period).

All the ideas, requests, tasks, and all the work that comes in the form of a large list are called Items. Product Backlog Items are the content of the Product Backlog. They are called items because their form can be very different. Something can be written down as an idea, another as a task, third as a defect, fourth as a suggestion for improvement, fifth as a User story, sixth may be just a graph or a diagram, etc.

The Increment

The increment is the current version of the product under development. This current version contains all the previously done work on the product, plus the work done in the current Sprint.

By "work done" we mean finished Product Backlog Items from the Sprint Backlog list.

The Sprint Goal

Sprint Goal is an abstract and common goal for the current sprint. A sprint can have many "tasks" from the Sprint Backlog list, but the overall "goal" is a summary of them all.

The Sprint Goal can be defined in free text. The team decides how long the goal text is and what exactly it should contain. It is important when reading the goal to make it clear what the team needs to focus on.

In real life, many Scrum teams do not record their goals. The reasons may be a lack of creativity or just unwillingness.

Definition of Done

Definition of Done is a set of criteria that must be met by all Product Backlog Items so that they can become part of a Product Increment.

These definitions can be understood as short and clear requirements and a list of things to do. Once all these requirements and criteria are met, and everything described in them is complete, the Product Backlog Item can be considered done.

The product vision

A product vision can be understood as a "description" and some plan of the product. It contains several sections with information such as who are the users of the product, how the product will be better than the competition products, what will be the promotion methods, description of the ways of distribution, etc. This information is defined at the earliest stage when the product is still being planned and grown as a big idea. Product teams use this "vision" as a basis for creating concepts, ideas, further research.

The Burn-Down Chart

Burn-Down Chart is a simple graph that shows graphically done work and remaining time in a sprint. By "work done", we mean items. Most often, this chart displays information about the current sprint only.

The purpose and application of this graph are simply a quick and easy way to view your progress on the task at a glance.

Scrum events

Scrum events are ordinary events (meetings that have a specific purpose). Certain situations arise at every "event".

The official Scrum events are:

  • Sprint
  • Sprint Planning
  • Daily Scrum
  • Sprint Review
  • Sprint Retrospective
The Elements of Scrum - The 4 Major Scrum Elements
Comments of our guests
  1. Tom Timi
    Hey buddies! Can one Scrum team member perform the functions and duties of another Scrum role? For example, if I am a Product Owner, can I be a Scrum Master substitute temporarily? I work in a team where often our Scrum Master is absent or not full time or working on other projects, and no one will take his job.

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