The following article is part of the self-preparation for the modern BVOP® Human Resources Management Professional Certification program.
By the 1950s, Japan was in the throes of war. However, in less than 30 years it became an economic giant and ranked second in the world. This draws the attention of scientists and specialists to the Japanese model of management.
Comparative analysis of Western and Japanese management points out the following differences.
Western management is characterized by:
- Individual decision-making process.
- Individual responsibility.
- Precisely formulated management structure.
- Linking salary and career with individual results.
- Training of narrowly specialized experts.
- Formal relations between managers and subordinates.
- Easy and frequent transfer from one company to another.
The analysis of the Japanese management system shows significant differences in its business principles.
There is lifetime employment in Japan. Moving from one company to another is very rare and not well accepted. This leads to the stability of the composition of companies and their divisions. Favorable preconditions are created for the emergence of informal relationships and connections.
This reflects on the following outcomes:
- Collective responsibility
- Group forms of control
- Informal relationships
- A priority of group achievements.
Collective methods are preferred in decision-making processes.
A consensus is preferred when making a decision, although the procedure for reaching consensus may take time.
The selection, evaluation, and promotion of staff in the Japanese model are also specific. Young employees entering Japanese companies are not required to have prior professional training.
Employees must go through all the positions at the lowest hierarchical level before starting to climb the hierarchical spiral. The employee is strictly observed.
An employee with a lower position may not take the place of his/her superior until he/she has been appointed to a higher position.
BVOP recommends exploring the possibilities for the following management approaches to the staff of organizations:
- A long-term career in one organization.
- A slower process of professional growth.
- Making team decisions by consensus.
- Achieving a high degree of trust between employees.
- Constant care for the people in the organization.
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